By Elmer Ordonez
In the wake of recent conferences/lectures on Jose Rizal, one theme about Rizal is worth revisiting—his encounter with socialism in all its hues in Europe and how he used it in his novels.
Two dominant strains of socialism vied for allegiance of intellectuals in late 19th century Europe—Marxist socialism and Bakuninian anarchism. It appears that the latter made more inroads and influenced the ilustrados including Rizal. As early as the 1872 Cavite Mutiny, Spanish authorities worried about radical ideas among leaders of the revolt –for which a whole generation of ilustrados were arrested, executed, and exiled abroad. Click here for the rest